KoCoS Blog

Answer: Nothing! Because when we talk about GOOSE at KoCoS, we usually don’t mean the animal but the network protocol I protection technology. Further answers to the question of what GOOSE is all about and what role the latest ARTES update plays in this context can be found here. 

The IEC 61850 standard of the international Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) describes, among other things, a general transmission protocol for protection and control technology in medium and high voltage substations (station automation). One topic of this series of standards is the “Generic Object Oriented Substation Events”, in short GOOSE messages. 

But what is the significance of these GOOSE messages in a substation? 
In simple terms, GOOSE messages are used to exchange information such as status messages or excitation signals between the IEDs (Intelligent Electronic Devices) of the station. These information are distributed as an Ethernet packets via the process bus of the substation.

With an update to follow in the next few days, the test systems of the 4th ARTES generation can also be integrated into a corresponding environment to evaluate these signals. Thanks to the powerful signal processor of these test systems, they can be connected directly to the process bus, so that the evaluation of GOOSE messages can take place in real time.

Since a large number of GOOSE messages can be present in a network, but only the information of individual ones is of interest for the protection test, the exact structure of the required GOOSE message must be known. For the correct parameterization of ARTES test systems, a relay-specific configuration file is required. This file contains all information regarding the structure of the GOOSE message and its content. The ARTES 5 software analyses the configuration file and the desired signal can be selected. 

After the appropriate parameterization has been carried out, a GOOSE message can perform the same functions as the already used hardware inputs of the ARTES test systems.

Still questions? Then please use the comment function here in the blog or send an e-mail to bfleuth(at)kocos.com

Quality assurance by geometric measurements increasingly becomes important not only in the final inspection. The control of dimensional accuracy is progressively shifting to the beginning of the manufacturing processes in order to detect and minimize rejects at an early stage.
The 3D measuring systems LOTOS are suitable among other applications for the exact measurement of ingots, which represent the beginning of the production process of semiconductor wafers. In order to obtain the optimum yield of wafers from the ingots, a highly accurate geometry determination at the beginning of the manufacturing process is more important than ever.

High-precision measurements of the ingot are critical to the quality and productivity of the wafer cutting process. Only an exact geometry allows to set perfect cuttings.

A solution using mechanical measurements is possible, but very susceptible. The material is very brittle, so mechanical impacts can easily cause micro cracks invisible to the human eye. These lead to wafer breakage in later process steps and thus to cost-intensive rejects.

The advantages of geometry inspection of ingots with LOTOS 3D measuring systems are:

  1. Less waste and scrap of the expensive materials
  2. Optimal utilization of the cross-sectional area of the ingot increases productivity
  3. Contactless measuring method allows a solution without mechanical stress of the material, micro cracks due to mechanical stress are therefore excluded

The following video shows the measurement of an ingot with LOTOS

As well as the scan result as 3D visualization

A network calculation is always necessary when new networks are created or planned, existing networks are revised or new plants as well as consumers have to be integrated into existing networks. Especially in the case of existing networks, a reliable simple statement about the utilization of the network is not easily possible in many cases due to the insufficient data situation. The structures, which have grown over the years, are usually only documented schematically and were, if at all, considered mathematically in parts during refurbishments.

As a result, the security of supply can be endangered. In order to ensure security of supply, it is absolutely necessary to know the load and disconnection conditions in one's own network. These data serve as a basis for the design of network changes.
The network calculation serves thereby:

  • To support the network operation in the evaluation of the current network condition (ACTUAL condition).
  • To support secure network operation by means of forward-looking network simulations (planning basis).
  • As a basis for operational and network expansion planning (TARGET condition).
  • In detail, the network calculation records all dimensioning and calculation data for the correct dimensioning of the electrical power distribution, such as:
  • Utilization of the resources by load flow calculation,
  • Determination of the capacity reserves of the individual resources,
  • Short-circuit current calculation,
  • Voltage drop calculation,
  • Selectivity consideration
  • Current carrying capacity,
  • Protection against overload,
  • Protection against short circuit,
  • Protection against electric shock by disconnection.

In the planning phase of an electrical switchgear or an electrical network, the network calculation is an essential tool for the correct design and the correct selection of the electrical equipment. After completion of the installation, the network calculation is used to determine the setting values of the protective devices or for the required proof of selective fault disconnection (selectivity) in accordance with the applicable standards. The testing of the individual protection devices can of course be carried out with our protection relay testing system "ARTES".

The KoCoS Engineering & Services team uses the established and manufacturer-independent network calculation program "PowerFactory" from DigSILENT. Hereby we calculate nationwide for our customers’ medium and low voltage networks in the automotive industry, industrial and public network operators, public state and federal properties and the petroleum industry.

The European power grid dealt with major problems on 08 January 2021. An entire region in Eastern Europe was disconnected, and in some cases experienced power outages. The European power grid is part of the critical infrastructure (CRITIS). The Austrian Federal Army had already warned in January 2020: "A Europe-wide blackout is to be expected within the next 5 years!“
On 8 January 2021 at around 14:05, a frequency deviation of around 250 mHz occurred in the synchronized European high-voltage electricity grid. As a result, the region of south-eastern Europe was disconnected from the European interconnected grid.

A cascade of failures of equipment, such as power lines and switchgear in south-eastern Europe, led to massive problems within the European power grid. According to the report, the near-blackout in large parts of Europe was triggered by a transformer station in Ernestinovo, Croatia. Initial investigations stated at 14:04 an overcurrent protection device on a 400-kilovolt bus bar coupler in the substation tripped, causing it to switch off automatically. This also interrupted two extra-high voltage connections that carry electricity from the Balkans to other parts of Europe; affecting the lines to Žerjavinec (Croatia) and Pecs (Hungary) in the north-western direction. The result was that within less than 50 seconds the European power grid split into two areas: the northwest, which lacked 6.3 GW of generation capacity, and the southeast, which had a corresponding surplus.

In some regions there were visible problems. For example, lamps in households and on the streets have lit up or went out, and electrical appliances turned on and off. The radio station RFI România reported power cuts in parts of Romania. The frequency drop led to consequential disturbances at various infrastructure operators, such as the Vienna airport and hospitals, which triggered the emergency power supply. There was also a serious incident at Vienna Airport, where hundreds of hardware parts were destroyed and damage amounting to several hundred thousand euros was caused. Approximately one hour after the disconnection, the two power grids were resynchronized.

Exact sequence of the disturbance
At 14:05 (CET) the frequency in the north-western power unit dropped to 49.74 Hz. After about 15 seconds, it stabilized at 49.84 Hz, which is still within the permissible band for deviations of plusminus 0.2 Hz. At the same time, the frequency in the south-eastern area jumped to 50.6 Hertz before stabilizing at a value between 50.2 and 50.3 Hz.

The disconnection of the sub-grid had a clear impact on the grid frequency. Thus, at (14:04:55 local time CET), the grid frequency dropped from about 50.027 Hz to a minimum of 49.742 Hz within 14 seconds. This left the normal control range of 50.000 Hz ±200 mHz. The first stage of the schedule (activation of power reserves) was achieved. Reconnection to the interconnected grid at 15:08 CET, on the other hand, had no effect on the grid frequency.

Reduction of product recalls and costly image damage through the new product feature ejector monitoring at INDEC 300 systems

Avoid product recalls even before the goods leave production - with the reliable vacuum inspection systems from KoCoS.

With our INDEC range of vacuum inspection systems, food manufacturers have the assurance that HACCP (Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points) principles are met.
KoCoS vacuum inspection systems are characterised by their superior detection sensitivity and automatic rejection of defective products in the food industry.

The ejector monitoring function checks whether the ejector has separated a container from the product flow that has been detected as bad. For this purpose, another light barrier is arranged parallel to the conveyor belt opposite the ejector. If the light barrier is not interrupted by the bad container within the adjustable delay after the ejector has been triggered, an error message is generated.

Call up the Edit Ejector screen - tap the Monitoring button, set it to ON and enter the manually determined delay. In addition to the error message, an electrical switching signal can be output via a binary output, for example to stop the production process automatically.

The costs incurred by executed recalls, such as publication of warning messages, transport back to the factory and loss of sales, are relatively easy to calculate. But the more far-reaching consequences of the action, such as the loss of brand image among supermarkets and consumers, are not so easy to foresee.

It is precisely under these conditions that smaller manufacturing companies focus on vacuum testing systems from the INDEC series to minimise the risk of product recalls. It is also a way of signalling to the authorities and their trade customers that they meet the required standards and are available for lucrative new markets.

In food manufacturing, a good reputation is particularly important. The less often improperly sealed bottles and jars reach the consumer, the better. Only in this way can manufacturers protect the image of their brand, increase sales and secure their profits.

More and more small and medium-sized enterprises are realising that the best way to achieve these goals is with an INDEC series vacuum inspection system from KoCoS.

When you integrate an INDEC vacuum inspection system into your process, you can be confident that you are meeting current HACCP requirements and that your reputation and customers are reliably protected.