KoCoS Blog

Yesterday - Today - Tomorrow

Background
Germany wants to do more for the climate. Following the ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in March 2021, the German government announced that CO2 emissions are to be reduced by 65% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels and not - as previously planned - by 55%. This basically requires more electrical energy from renewable sources than previously planned.
Depending on how high the demand for electrical energy is estimated to be in 2030, there will be completely different orders of magnitude in which wind and solar power plants will have to be expanded in order to achieve this 65% target.

How will the future energy demand in Germany develop?
So far, the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) has assumed that electricity consumption will not change significantly over the next nine years until 2030 and will remain at around 580 billion kWh. Looking at the past, this does not seem wrong. "In the last ten, 20 years, electricity consumption has been relatively constant," Johannes Wagner of the Energy Economics Institute at the University of Cologne (EWI) told Deutsche Welle. "We had a gross electricity consumption of about 600 billion kWh over a long period of time. That only went down relatively sharply in 2020 due to special effects from Corona."
But that need not hold true for the future. Various experts believe that the federal government's planning to date is too cautious. Even SPD chancellor candidate Olaf Scholz recently indirectly criticised his ministerial colleague Peter Altmaier (CDU): "Anyone who claims that electricity consumption will remain the same until 2030 is lying to himself and the country."
So what if electricity consumption does not stay the same at all, but perhaps even rises sharply? That is in fact the scenario that various energy experts are assuming. "The expert commission for monitoring the energy transition, of which I am a member, has estimated a value for electricity consumption that is significantly higher than that of the German government," says Veronika Grimm, a member of the government's Council of Experts (the “Wirtschaftsweisen"). "We are moving around a value of 650 billion kWh and are thus still at the lower end of the spectrum," Grimm said in an interview with Deutsche Welle in July 2021.

Energy demand in the first half of 2021
According to Zeit Online, more energy was needed and more CO2 was emitted in the first half of 2021 than in the same period of the previous year with approx. 600 billion kWh. The share of fossil fuels increased compared to the previous year.
A rather cool winter (2020/2021) and the restart of the economy after the Corona slowdown caused energy demand in Germany to rise in the first half of 2021. According to calculations by the Working Group on Energy Balances (AGEB), consumption increased by 4.3% compared to the same period last year, to approx. 625 billion kWh.

Because more electricity was produced with brown and hard coal than in the same period last year, carbon dioxide emissions increased by 6.2%. The consumption of lignite rose by about one third in the first six months of this current year, that of anthracite by almost 23%. The increase in fossil fuels in electricity generation is mainly due to the fact that less wind power was generated.

Estimates of Germany's future electrical energy demand
On 13 July 2021, Federal Minister of Economics and Technology Peter Altmaier presented a first new estimate of Germany's electrical energy demand in 2030.
In the BMWi press release of 13 July 2021, Federal Minister of Economics Peter Altmaier states here, among other things: "The new version of the Climate Protection Act and our new ambitious climate targets, which the Bundestag and Bundesrat passed at the end of June 2021, require an adjustment of our analyses of electricity consumption in 2030."
Today it is already clear that Germany's future energy supply will essentially be based on two energy sources. On the one hand, on electricity from renewable energies and, on the other, on hydrogen produced with the help of renewable energies.
An initial estimate of electricity consumption in 2030, prepared by Prognos AG on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics, comes to an electricity consumption of between 645 and 665 billion kWh. The following assumptions were made: 14 million electric cars, 6 million heat pumps and 30 billion kWh of electricity for green hydrogen.
According to the German Wave, the think tank Agora Energiewende also estimates the electrical energy demand in 2030 at 650 billion kWh. The EWI calculates that 685 billion kWh will be needed in nine years. The German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE) assumes 745 billion kWh in 2030 and the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) even expects an energy demand of 780 billion kWh in 2030, i.e. 70 to 200 billion kWh more than the Ministry of Economics currently forecasts.

Higher energy demand due to e-cars, heat pumps and electrolysers.
The demand for energy is growing due to the shift to e-mobility and the changing heating of buildings (e.g. with electrically powered heat pumps). It is also becoming apparent that industry will have to switch to synthetic energy sources, such as hydrogen. For the production of green hydrogen through electrolysis, there is in turn an increased demand for electrical energy.
"The German government's goal of creating electrolysis capacities of five gigawatts by 2030 alone will require a considerable amount of additional electricity. To achieve this, we need to estimate an additional 20 billion kWh of electricity," says Veronika Grimm. This energy demand corresponds to more than one sixth of the total energy provided by wind power in 2020.
So more electricity will be consumed. On the other hand, there are of course efficiency gains that reduce electricity consumption. In this area, the German government has set itself the goal of reducing electricity consumption by 25% by 2050 compared to 2008 through greater energy efficiency. However, these efficiency gains cannot compensate for the increased demand for electrical energy.


In addition, Agora Energiewende criticises that economically highly profitable efficiency potentials have not yet been systematically exploited, even though market-ready technologies are already available today.

How large must the growth of renewable energies be?
Based on the electricity estimates of Agora Energiewende, Germany would have to expand about ten gigawatts of photovoltaics, 1.7 gigawatts of onshore wind and four to five gigawatts of offshore wind annually by 2030. In recent years, these outputs were only achieved in the record expansion years.
It will probably not work without its European neighbours. "Currently, Germany exports electricity abroad," says Johannes Wagner (EWI), "in the medium term, we must expect Germany to become a net importer for the time being."
It will be quite challenging and many mechanisms will have to be set in motion to push the expansion of renewable energies, says expert Veronika Grimm.

Sources:
Deutsche Welle, ZEIT ONLINE, dpa, BDEW, Statista, BMWi, AGEB, ZSW, ISE, Agora Energiewende, EWI

When testing electrical components, such as motors, accurate, reliable and powerful power supplies are required. Furthermore, in production, many processes are automated where time is an important factor in testing.

The voltage sources of the EPOS CV series are designed for above mentioned requirements, where adjustable output voltages up to 270 VAC / 300 VDC are needed.

A special feature of the EPOS CV voltage sources is the variable transformer with a fast motor drive that controls the AC/DC output voltage. A variable transformer is used because it enables a continuously adjustable voltage and is insensitive to current peaks. With the EPOS CV voltage sources, the output voltage can thus be steplessly adjusted to the respective requirements automatically and manually. 
The voltage sources are provided with internal voltage and current measurements via a controller, which significantly increases the efficiency of the system. The internal measurement electronics permanently control and regulate the values and ensure function monitoring. Among other things, the voltage sources are overload-protected with a circuit breaker that disconnects the output circuits in the event of a short circuit, for example. 
The series has been equipped with a convenient operating unit with touchscreen, jog wheel and function keys. The system is easy to operate and extremely user-friendly due to the control unit and display.
The output voltage can be set in stand-alone mode via the rotary knob. In automatic mode, the EPOS CV voltage sources can be easily integrated into own applications via an Ethernet interface.
The voltage sources of the EPOS CV series are available in different power classes. They are used wherever continuously adjustable DC and AC voltages in the range up to 270 VAC or 300 VDC are used. All models are suitable for connection in the frequency range 50 Hz / 60 Hz. 

Typical data of the motor-driven EPOS CV voltage sources are:

EPOS CV 821

  1. one phase
  2. 1 x 15..270 VAC
  3. 1 x 15..300 VDC
  4. 1 x 30 AAC
  5. 1 x 20 ADC
  6. 8,1 kVA

EPOS CV 831

  1. one phase
  2. 1 x 15..270 VAC
  3. 1 x 15..300 VDC
  4. 1 x 40 AAC
  5. 1 x 30 AAC
  6. 11,5 kVA

EPOS CV 753

  1. three phase
  2. 3 x 15..300 VACPN
  3. 3 x 15..520 VACPP
  4. 1 x 15..300 VDC
  5. 3 x 25 AAC
  6. 1 x 32 ADC
  7. 22,5 kVA

EPOS CV voltage sources provide both a high output voltage and a high output current. Especially when operating motors, large starting currents occur when the full rated voltage is applied, which can be many times the rated currents. The voltage sources are capable of supplying these current peaks up to 10 times the rated current of the load during the switch-on process.

Testing is the only way to ensure that electrical components function correctly. By analyzing the curve signatures of the actuating and operating currents and the resulting characteristics, it is possible to make accurate statements about the behavior of components and thus draw conclusions about their electrical and mechanical condition. For such analyses, KoCoS provides powerful AC/DC sources in the form of the EPOS CV series of voltage sources.

Would you like to find out more? You can find more information at the following link or contact us by mail at info(at)kocos.com.

The external signal outputs in vacuum inspection device INDEC 300 for recording counter figures in the customer's data network

With our INDEC range of vacuum testing systems, food manufacturers can be sure that HACCP (Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points) principles are met. KoCoS vacuum inspection systems are characterized by their superior detection sensitivity and automatic separation of defective products.

Increasingly, our customers who use an INDEC 300 vacuum inspection system for closure inspection in production want to feed the data obtained into their data acquisition system or into the higher-level machine control system. INDEC 300 offers a variety of linking possibilities for this purpose.

Often you want to transfer the counter figures for the GOOD, BAD and TOTAL products into the company's own data network for extensive evaluations for quality control. The INDEC 300 is ideally equipped for this. All three counter figures can be determined
simultaneously by setting the pulse duration between 1...120 ms of the respective counter pulses once by the respective global parameters and switching the respective outputs from OFF to ON.

Once the connection has been made according to the connection diagram - marked yellow here - these pulses are then permanently available in the higher-level machine control and the customer's data network.

 

Analogue to the kwon standard screen of INDEC 300 device, those counter numbers can now be used in real time in the customer's data network for a variety of evaluations and analyses.    

This makes it possible, for example, for quality control personnel to take action remotely in the filling process at any time and consistently reduce the reject rate.

The processor-controlled inspection systems of the INDEC 300 series are characterized by the highest reliability and simplest handling and are the first choice for many food manufacturers.

Background

Many people use a smartphone with internet access for up to several hours a day. In 2020, the number of smartphones in circulation worldwide was over 8.15 billion [source: statista]. Large amounts of data are in circulation worldwide; on Youtube alone, 400 hours of video material are published every second [source: brandwatch]. The so-called Big Data are exponentially growing amounts of data that can be accessed online and are stored in large server centres. The prerequisite for this is the infrastructure in these server centres, the operation of which is associated with an annually increasing energy consumption.
Google alone receives 3.8 million search queries per minute, according to a study commissioned by Wirtschaftswoche. Facebook members upload about 250,000 pictures every minute and the music service Spotify streams an average of 1.5 million songs every minute.

Energy consumption through internet operation and CO2 emissions

Anyone who makes a search query on Google consumes 0.003 kWh per search query - enough energy to light a 60-watt light bulb for 17 seconds. Each Google user could power a 60-watt light bulb for three hours with their monthly search queries. For the total energy demand, however, the user's internet-capable terminal and internet access would have to be included.
The power consumption of a single search query arises at three different points:

  1. The power consumption of the internet-enabled terminal.
  2. The power consumption of the networks such as the mobile radio station and the internet router.
  3. The electricity consumption of the data centres and data centres with their servers and cooling systems, which in turn consist of air conditioners, fans and recooling.

In 2020, according to the Borderstep Institute, the energy consumption of all server and data centres in Germany was approximately 16 billion kWh. This energy could be used to supply 4.8 million three-person households, with an energy demand of 3,300 kWh/a.
If the internet were a country, it would be the third largest in the world in terms of electricity consumption. Just ahead of India with 1,137 (2020) and after the USA with 3,902 billion kWh (2020). According to current estimates, the operation of the internet currently requires between 1,100 and 1,300 billion kWh/a worldwide.
Currently, the annual energy demand for the use of digital services is less than one percent of the global energy demand (approx. 160,000 billion kWh). According to its own information, the Google Group currently requires 5.7 billion kWh per year, which corresponds to the energy demand of a large American city. According to WDR, 13 per cent of the entire world energy demand will be necessary for internet operation in 2030. Thus, the web, apps and especially the streaming of films and series will soon cause as much CO2 pollution as the entire global air traffic (before Corona), estimates the Borderstep Institute.
The French research project "The Shift-Project" found that the use of online videos alone has CO2 emissions equivalent to the energy needs of Spain in 2018. The climate researchers from France calculated that 23 trees would have to be planted per second to offset the CO2 emissions caused worldwide by Google queries. That would be almost two million trees per day.

Impact of the technology leap to the 5G mobile phone standard

With the technological leap to the mobile phone standard 5G, the energy demand of data centres will increase drastically. This is the conclusion of a study commissioned by E.ON from the University of RWTH Aachen. According to the study, 5G can increase the power demand in data centres by up to 3.8 billion kWh by 2025. That is enough energy to supply the 2.5 million inhabitants of the cities of Cologne, Düsseldorf and Dortmund for a year.
According to the French Shift Project, faster mobile internet access is causing a major shift in usage behaviour. Thanks to 5G, mobile surfing is becoming faster and possibly cheaper at the same time. For example, the average monthly data volume in Germany has already increased a hundredfold from 0.027 to 2.5 gigabytes in the last ten years.
As a general rule, access to the World Wide Web via the mobile network requires significantly more power than via the home cable. Experts even estimate that up to 23 times more energy is needed. The higher the available speed on the road, the lower the need to use the WLAN at home. A vicious energy circle.

Further highlights as a short collection of facts

  1. If you use a streaming service on your TV for one or two hours a day every year, you use enough electricity to run your fridge for half a year.
  2. According to the Shift Project, two hours of Netflix in HD quality consume the same amount of energy as an oven.
  3. According to Stern, a typical email causes an average of one gram of CO2. Since users send an average of 30 emails a day, they could use this energy to light up a 4-watt LED for 15 hours.
  4. According to Canadian network analytics firm Sandvine, almost half of mobile internet traffic on smartphones worldwide is video streaming (49 per cent). Again, YouTube claims just under half of this category (48 per cent). This makes Google's video subsidiary by far the biggest bandwidth hog, claiming nearly a quarter of all mobile internet traffic (23.5 per cent)."[Michael Kroker]
  5. The Shift Project has calculated that half an hour of streaming causes about 1.6 kg of CO2. This corresponds to a car journey of 6.28 km. According to this, streaming was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions last year that were as high as those of Spain. It is assumed that this amount will double in the next 6 years.
  6. 20 Google searches burn an energy-saving light bulb for 1 hour!
  7. 10 hours of high-definition videos consume more energy than all English Wikipedia articles in text format.
  8. The cryptocurrency Bitcoin leaves a significant carbon footprint: the electricity used in the creation of Bitcoin is about 46 billion kWh of electricity per year.
  9. If ten million people watch a film on TV, that triggers only one broadcast. But if ten million people stream a film, that also triggers ten million transmissions, with the corresponding energy demand.

Where to put the heat?

The growth of the streaming industry is increasing the number of data centres. Today, Frankfurt is already the largest internet hub in the world. And each of these data centres has an electricity consumption of a small town. Together they account for 25 percent of the electricity consumption of the city of Frankfurt. The operation of these data centres generates large amounts of heat, which must be compensated for with the help of cooling systems.
According to E.ON, up to 8 billion kWh of waste heat will be available nationwide by 2025. There is great potential here for the sustainable use of this energy. In Germany alone there are more than 53,000 data centres with over 2 million servers. Today, the waste heat from data centres is not yet used consistently. Only 19 percent of the world's data centres reuse parts of their waste heat.
This waste heat is valuable energy. Almost half of the electrical energy used is converted into heat. In the future, data centres can be used to supply heat to housing estates and entire city districts.
According to WDR, another idea comes from Dresden. The servers of a data centre do not have to be located in one place, but can also be operated in a distributed manner. In apartment buildings, for example, servers could be located in the basement and their waste heat used for heating and hot water.

Small cause, big effect

When it comes to environmental and climate protection, even many small things can have a big effect. Many things start with a change in behaviour. Can we perhaps unsubscribe from newsletters that we no longer read? Do you really need to stream the series online "in between" or would you rather relax at home on the sofa in the WLAN? Do all files really have to be stored in a cloud or is the local hard drive sufficient? Should old mails be deleted from the mailbox memory?
In an experiment in 2019, the TV knowledge magazine Galileo asked users of an email service to delete as many emails as possible within one hour. The more than 27,000 participants in the action deleted a total of more than 300,000 mails - an average of eleven - emptied the wastebaskets and thus freed up 50 gigabytes of hard disk capacity on the servers: According to estimates by the data centre, a saving of an estimated 1.7 kilogrammes of CO2. If every user in Germany deleted 11 mails a day, 91,000 t CO2/annum would be saved. That would be the energy consumption of about 125,000 people.

Combining several disturbance recorders into one device

In the last blog, we looked at combining and overlaying disturbance records from different data sources to evaluate network disturbances across locations. The focus was on manual overlaying of data using the SHERLOG Expert analysis software.

In the current release of the SHERLOG-Expert software, we have now added the ability to automatically merge disturbance records from any number of SHERLOG CRX and EPPE CX devices into a single disturbance record. Since the data is merged within the SHERLOG-Expert software, it does not matter whether the individual devices are installed together in one station or distributed over entire regions.

A single SHERLOG CRX can be equipped with up to 32 analog and up to 128 binary inputs. In many stations, however, there are considerably more signals to be monitored, so that several SHERLOGs are almost always used within a station. In this case, the KoCoS interlink interface ensures that all devices always operate absolutely synchronously in terms of time and that cross-trigger information is exchanged between them for the parallel recording of network faults.

 

Thanks to the new functionality of the SHERLOG-Expert software, it is now possible to create so-called combined devices and assign any SHERLOG CRX or EPPE CX devices to them. A combined device thus consists of at least 2 or more physical devices. The disturbance records of these combined devices then automatically contain all channels of all assigned devices, summarized in one record.

 

This method simplifies the handling and the disturbance analysis substantially, since per grid event  only one file must be opened, analyzed or passed on. Of course, it is still possible to access the recordings of the individual physical devices separately as usual.

In the real power supply environment, it is difficult to generate power quality events in order to analyze their characteristics and effects. Therefore, a system is needed with the ability to generate and output diverse three-phase signal waveforms.

With the software-based signal generator system EPOS 360, it is possible to realize an overall system with which three-phase power quality events can be simulated in a simple way.
Three-phase voltage and current signals with different signal disturbances can be generated with the EPOS operating software, such as voltage dips or interruptions, transient pulses and distortion of the voltage or current signal caused by the influence of higher order harmonic components.

Different monitors are available in the software for parameterization and the output of signals and test sequences.

TRANSIG-Monitor

The TRANSIG-Monitor module can be used to check the function of a DUT under real conditions. The TRANSIG-Monitor enables the graphical display and output of recordings and signal curves. Signal curves can be, for example, recordings of fault value acquisition systems or digital protection relays, which are available in the standardized COMTRADE format, or SigDef files with self-defined signals.

The functions of the TRANSIG monitor are:

  1. Loading of recordings in COMTRADE format or SigDef files.
  2. Assignment of the signals of the recording to the EPOS output signals.
  3. Scaling of the signals of the recordings.
  4. Transfer of the defined TRANSIG functions into a test plan.

Signal Editor

Another component of the EPOS operating software is the signal editor. The signal editor enables the definition, parameterization and calculation of any signal characteristics. The parameterization of the signals is done interactively on the screen. A signal duration can be set for each channel and each channel can in turn be divided into any number of time windows of different lengths. Within the time windows different function curves can be synthesized. It is possible to synthesize the function curves from a basic function, such as

  1. sine, 
  2. rectangle, 
  3. sawtooth,
  4. triangle, 
  5. DC

and their additive or multiplicative superposition with one or more superposition functions.

Superpositions can be functions, such as

  1. sine,
  2. exponential functions,
  3. ramps,
  4. DC,
  5. impulse,
  6. harmonics,
  7. mathematical expressions.

In particular, the mathematical expressions in the overlays should be pointed out, since the creation of formulas offers a wide range of possibilities for signal generation. The overlay function "Expression" is used to create a curve using mathematical inputs.

Conclusion

The three-phase signal generator EPOS 360 offers the possibility to create different signal waveforms, to apply them to the test object and to analyze the effects. The overall EPOS 360 system with the EPOS operating software thus provides a useful mechanism to understand and explain network phenomena without much effort.

Do you have questions about the EPOS 360 three-phase signal generator? We have the answers!
Contact us via the comment function here on the blog or by mail to info(at)kocos.com.

Recently, customers have repeatedly asked us about a suitable large display unit for INDEC systems. They would like to be informed about the current degree of processing for the current batch as well as about error messages on a large-format display, which is visible from afar in the production hall. We are pleased to announce the availability of such a large display with an edge length of 63 x 14 cm for INDEC 300 model.

As you can see in the photos below, the counter number as well as the error messages are easily readable from a great distance. This makes it possible for the operating personnel to quickly take the necessary precautions to immediately eliminate the deficiencies in the filling process.

https://cloud.kocos.com/index.php/s/rG6n38xkPzwo7CA

As a rule, the vacuum testing system is not constantly monitored by the operating personnel. If, during the 100 % inspection of all containers, a system error of the filling line or an equipment malfunction of the INDEC system should occur, this shop floor result display immediately informs the system operator.  

Gerald Herrmann
product manager

In addition to the hardware of a test system, the testing software also plays a major role in protection relay testing. Even though simple test tasks can be performed with ARTES test systems without a PC using the integrated operator interface, it is only the combination of hardware and software that provides the full range of functions. The testing software is designed to simplify and automate even complex protection tests.

KoCoS meets these requirements with its ARTES 5 testing software. ARTES 5 enables today’s protection engineers to perform their daily tasks quickly and easily. To this end, ARTES 5 offers a wide variety of features that make testing as efficient as possible. 

Database

ARTES 5 is a database-based testing software. This allows centralized management of all necessary settings as well as results and eliminates the need for manual data management. In addition to a simple folder structure, entire plants including voltage levels and bays can be visualized in the topology. 

For data exchange with colleagues or customers, individual data sets or entire structures can be exported from the database to a file. In turn, the information contained can be viewed and edited without importing it into the user’s own database. 

All in One

With the increasing complexity of protection functions, the testing software must provide the user with more and more new tools. In ARTES 5, these tools are known as monitors, and various monitors adapted to different protection functions are provided. All available monitors are included in the standard scope of delivery and do not have to purchased additionally by the user. Regular updates, some of which include new monitors, are also provided free of charge. 

Of course, the ARTES 5 testing software offers much more. For a detailed presentation of ARTES 5 our specialists are at your disposal. Contact us via the comment function or by mail to info(at)kocos.com

Background: What is a standby mode?

Standby mode is a state of a technical device. It is characterized by temporarily deactivated functions that can be reactivated at any time without waiting - for example, with the help of a remote control. Standby mode is also sometimes referred to as waiting mode or apparent off mode.
Since the electrical device must at least be able to process the control signals, there is a need for the corresponding control signal processing circuit to be active at all times. Thus, the device consumes power even in standby mode. For operation in standby mode, energy worth around four billion euros is required every year in Germany alone.

Less consumption in standby mode due to eco-design directive?

In order to reduce the power consumption for which standby mode is responsible, the European Union passed the so-called “Ecodesign Directive” in 2008. This sets limits for the power requirements of household appliances and consumer electronics in standby mode. In 2013, the regulations, which came into force in 2010, were tightened once again. The German government, under the leadership of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, transposed the (Ecodesign) Directive 2009/125/EC into German law with the Energy-Related Products Act (EVPG).

By 2020, this should result in EU-wide electricity savings of 72 TWh, which roughly corresponds to the energy supply of 4.5 power plant units (with 800 MW capacity and a realistic full load of about 40% [average full load in Germany from 2015 to 2020: 38.7%]) in this period.

How high is the power consumption in standby mode?

Devices without an information or status display may consume a maximum of 0.5 watts in standby mode. By contrast, electrical devices with an information display - for the time, for example - are subject to a maximum of one watt. For devices with high network availability (HiNA devices) or corresponding functions, a limit of eight watts applies. Other networked devices must remain below a value of two watts since 2019.

This means for the maximum annual power consumption of different device classes with a daily standby duration of 22 hours:

  1. Device without information display (0.5 W): approx. 4 kWh
  2. Device with information display (1 W): approx. 8 kWh
  3. Device with high network availability (8 W): approx. 64 kWh

 

Energy costs in standby mode

For the three device classes described above, the following energy costs result in standby mode (22h), at an average electricity price of 29 cents per kWh (as of 08/21, including fixed price component and the consumption of an average three-person household of 3,300 kWh/a):

  1. Device without information display (0.5 W): approx. 1.16 euros
  2. Device with information display (1 W): approx. 2.32 Euro
  3. Device with high network availability (8 W): approx. 18.56 Euro

In general, the consumption of one watt in standby mode (24h) costs between 2.57 euros and 3.15 euros per year, depending on the electricity tariff.

Example: Digital voice assistant

Owners of a 1st generation voice assistant can expect the following consumption and electricity costs:

  1. In standby mode, i.e. without a question to the assistant or music playback: 2.8 watts.
  2. In assistant mode, when a question is to be answered: 3.2 watts.
  3. In audio playback with medium volume (level 5 of 10): 3 watts.
  4. During audio playback with full volume - level 10 out of 10: 7 watts.


At an average electricity price of 29 cents per kWh, this results in annual electricity costs of 7.09 euros (24.46 kWh) in standby mode (again for a standby duration of 22h). Two hours of music a day (otherwise standby) results in 9.20 euros.

It gets significantly more expensive for 1st generation assistants with an integrated display. These devices cost between approx. 12 and approx. 19 euros per year. However, a positive trend is that newer voice assistants require less energy, especially in standby mode.

How much money can be saved if all devices are switched off completely?

The amount by which the electricity bill can be reduced if the consumer switches off all appliances and does not merely put them into standby mode depends essentially on two factors: First, it depends on how many household and electrical appliances the respective household owns. Secondly, it depends on how old the appliances are. According to information from the consumer advice centre, an average around 10 to 20 percent of electricity consumption is attributable to devices in standby mode. This percentage range has also been observed in power and energy measurements carried out by KoCoS Engineering GmbH, with up to 20 simultaneous measurements using KoCoS EPPE measuring devices, in large properties belonging to the federal states, the federal government or the real estate industry.

The insurance industry assumes an annual savings potential of 330 to 660 KWh for a three-person household. Assuming an electricity price of 29 cents per kWh (see above), this corresponds to a savings potential of approx. 95 euros to approx. 190 euros per year.

 

After charging the smartphone, the charger remains in the socket?

You probably know this: after charging the smartphone, the charger remains in the socket. It is convenient to be able to simply plug in the smartphone cell phone when needed and not have to search for the charging cable. What does this convenience cost us?

Modern chargers must not consume more than 0.3 W according to the Ecodesign Directive. If we again assume a duration of 22h in standby mode, a consumption of 2.4 kWh, again at an electricity price of 0.29 euros/kWh, results in a cost of 0.70 euros per year.

For each one a small amount. But if you extrapolate the additional costs to the total population, the sum is surprisingly high: because in Germany, around 60.7 million people will be using a smartphone in 2020 (source: statista).

Assuming all location devices of these smartphones remained connected to the grid in standby mode, this would result in an annual consumption of more than 145 GWh or 145 million kWh at a cost of approximately 42 million euros/a. When converted to electricity (2020 energy mix), this results in more than 58 tons of C02 emissions per year (source: UBA).

As mentioned above, a German household with three persons consumes on average about 3,300 kWh per year (as of September 2020). The energy required for standby mode could supply around 44,000 three-person households in Germany with electricity for a year. But even the chargers of laptops, tablets or e-readers consume energy when left in the socket.

In vehicle construction, the dimensional accuracies between the parts of the drive or the entire drive train play an important role for the vibration behavior on the vehicle. Especially at high speeds and torques, deviations from the nominal values become noticeable through noises and vibrations or, in the worst case, through malfunctions and lead to quality loss or even total breakdown.

It is therefore necessary to check an increasing number of geometries for their exact dimensional accuracy. In addition, established tactile measuring methods and inspections using tracing gauges can no longer cope with the required production cycle times in view of the increasing number of dimensions to be inspected.

The degree of automation required in modern production facilities demands fast and fully automated component inspections that are directly integrated into the production process.

With LOTOS 3D measuring systems, drivetrain components can be inspected quickly and reliably for dimensional accuracy. Furthermore, the parts can be classified and sorted directly into different tolerance zones.

For this purpose, the test parts are placed on the measuring system either manually by hand or fully automatically via robot. Automatic quality inspection is then performed for both external and internal dimensions using predefined measuring programs.

This can be, for example, the geometric inspection of a drive shaft: (LOTOS Video)