KoCoS Blog

Combining several disturbance recorders into one device

In the last blog, we looked at combining and overlaying disturbance records from different data sources to evaluate network disturbances across locations. The focus was on manual overlaying of data using the SHERLOG Expert analysis software.

In the current release of the SHERLOG-Expert software, we have now added the ability to automatically merge disturbance records from any number of SHERLOG CRX and EPPE CX devices into a single disturbance record. Since the data is merged within the SHERLOG-Expert software, it does not matter whether the individual devices are installed together in one station or distributed over entire regions.

A single SHERLOG CRX can be equipped with up to 32 analog and up to 128 binary inputs. In many stations, however, there are considerably more signals to be monitored, so that several SHERLOGs are almost always used within a station. In this case, the KoCoS interlink interface ensures that all devices always operate absolutely synchronously in terms of time and that cross-trigger information is exchanged between them for the parallel recording of network faults.


Thanks to the new functionality of the SHERLOG-Expert software, it is now possible to create so-called combined devices and assign any SHERLOG CRX or EPPE CX devices to them. A combined device thus consists of at least 2 or more physical devices. The disturbance records of these combined devices then automatically contain all channels of all assigned devices, summarized in one record.


This method simplifies the handling and the disturbance analysis substantially, since per grid event  only one file must be opened, analyzed or passed on. Of course, it is still possible to access the recordings of the individual physical devices separately as usual.

In the real power supply environment, it is difficult to generate power quality events in order to analyze their characteristics and effects. Therefore, a system is needed with the ability to generate and output diverse three-phase signal waveforms.

With the software-based signal generator system EPOS 360, it is possible to realize an overall system with which three-phase power quality events can be simulated in a simple way.
Three-phase voltage and current signals with different signal disturbances can be generated with the EPOS operating software, such as voltage dips or interruptions, transient pulses and distortion of the voltage or current signal caused by the influence of higher order harmonic components.

Different monitors are available in the software for parameterization and the output of signals and test sequences.


The TRANSIG-Monitor module can be used to check the function of a DUT under real conditions. The TRANSIG-Monitor enables the graphical display and output of recordings and signal curves. Signal curves can be, for example, recordings of fault value acquisition systems or digital protection relays, which are available in the standardized COMTRADE format, or SigDef files with self-defined signals.

The functions of the TRANSIG monitor are:

  1. Loading of recordings in COMTRADE format or SigDef files.
  2. Assignment of the signals of the recording to the EPOS output signals.
  3. Scaling of the signals of the recordings.
  4. Transfer of the defined TRANSIG functions into a test plan.

Signal Editor

Another component of the EPOS operating software is the signal editor. The signal editor enables the definition, parameterization and calculation of any signal characteristics. The parameterization of the signals is done interactively on the screen. A signal duration can be set for each channel and each channel can in turn be divided into any number of time windows of different lengths. Within the time windows different function curves can be synthesized. It is possible to synthesize the function curves from a basic function, such as

  1. sine, 
  2. rectangle, 
  3. sawtooth,
  4. triangle, 
  5. DC

and their additive or multiplicative superposition with one or more superposition functions.

Superpositions can be functions, such as

  1. sine,
  2. exponential functions,
  3. ramps,
  4. DC,
  5. impulse,
  6. harmonics,
  7. mathematical expressions.

In particular, the mathematical expressions in the overlays should be pointed out, since the creation of formulas offers a wide range of possibilities for signal generation. The overlay function "Expression" is used to create a curve using mathematical inputs.


The three-phase signal generator EPOS 360 offers the possibility to create different signal waveforms, to apply them to the test object and to analyze the effects. The overall EPOS 360 system with the EPOS operating software thus provides a useful mechanism to understand and explain network phenomena without much effort.

Do you have questions about the EPOS 360 three-phase signal generator? We have the answers!
Contact us via the comment function here on the blog or by mail to info(at)kocos.com.

Recently, customers have repeatedly asked us about a suitable large display unit for INDEC systems. They would like to be informed about the current degree of processing for the current batch as well as about error messages on a large-format display, which is visible from afar in the production hall. We are pleased to announce the availability of such a large display with an edge length of 63 x 14 cm for INDEC 300 model.

As you can see in the photos below, the counter number as well as the error messages are easily readable from a great distance. This makes it possible for the operating personnel to quickly take the necessary precautions to immediately eliminate the deficiencies in the filling process.


As a rule, the vacuum testing system is not constantly monitored by the operating personnel. If, during the 100 % inspection of all containers, a system error of the filling line or an equipment malfunction of the INDEC system should occur, this shop floor result display immediately informs the system operator.  

Gerald Herrmann
product manager

In addition to the hardware of a test system, the testing software also plays a major role in protection relay testing. Even though simple test tasks can be performed with ARTES test systems without a PC using the integrated operator interface, it is only the combination of hardware and software that provides the full range of functions. The testing software is designed to simplify and automate even complex protection tests.

KoCoS meets these requirements with its ARTES 5 testing software. ARTES 5 enables today’s protection engineers to perform their daily tasks quickly and easily. To this end, ARTES 5 offers a wide variety of features that make testing as efficient as possible. 


ARTES 5 is a database-based testing software. This allows centralized management of all necessary settings as well as results and eliminates the need for manual data management. In addition to a simple folder structure, entire plants including voltage levels and bays can be visualized in the topology. 

For data exchange with colleagues or customers, individual data sets or entire structures can be exported from the database to a file. In turn, the information contained can be viewed and edited without importing it into the user’s own database. 

All in One

With the increasing complexity of protection functions, the testing software must provide the user with more and more new tools. In ARTES 5, these tools are known as monitors, and various monitors adapted to different protection functions are provided. All available monitors are included in the standard scope of delivery and do not have to purchased additionally by the user. Regular updates, some of which include new monitors, are also provided free of charge. 

Of course, the ARTES 5 testing software offers much more. For a detailed presentation of ARTES 5 our specialists are at your disposal. Contact us via the comment function or by mail to info(at)kocos.com

Background: What is a standby mode?

Standby mode is a state of a technical device. It is characterized by temporarily deactivated functions that can be reactivated at any time without waiting - for example, with the help of a remote control. Standby mode is also sometimes referred to as waiting mode or apparent off mode.
Since the electrical device must at least be able to process the control signals, there is a need for the corresponding control signal processing circuit to be active at all times. Thus, the device consumes power even in standby mode. For operation in standby mode, energy worth around four billion euros is required every year in Germany alone.

Less consumption in standby mode due to eco-design directive?

In order to reduce the power consumption for which standby mode is responsible, the European Union passed the so-called “Ecodesign Directive” in 2008. This sets limits for the power requirements of household appliances and consumer electronics in standby mode. In 2013, the regulations, which came into force in 2010, were tightened once again. The German government, under the leadership of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, transposed the (Ecodesign) Directive 2009/125/EC into German law with the Energy-Related Products Act (EVPG).

By 2020, this should result in EU-wide electricity savings of 72 TWh, which roughly corresponds to the energy supply of 4.5 power plant units (with 800 MW capacity and a realistic full load of about 40% [average full load in Germany from 2015 to 2020: 38.7%]) in this period.

How high is the power consumption in standby mode?

Devices without an information or status display may consume a maximum of 0.5 watts in standby mode. By contrast, electrical devices with an information display - for the time, for example - are subject to a maximum of one watt. For devices with high network availability (HiNA devices) or corresponding functions, a limit of eight watts applies. Other networked devices must remain below a value of two watts since 2019.

This means for the maximum annual power consumption of different device classes with a daily standby duration of 22 hours:

  1. Device without information display (0.5 W): approx. 4 kWh
  2. Device with information display (1 W): approx. 8 kWh
  3. Device with high network availability (8 W): approx. 64 kWh


Energy costs in standby mode

For the three device classes described above, the following energy costs result in standby mode (22h), at an average electricity price of 29 cents per kWh (as of 08/21, including fixed price component and the consumption of an average three-person household of 3,300 kWh/a):

  1. Device without information display (0.5 W): approx. 1.16 euros
  2. Device with information display (1 W): approx. 2.32 Euro
  3. Device with high network availability (8 W): approx. 18.56 Euro

In general, the consumption of one watt in standby mode (24h) costs between 2.57 euros and 3.15 euros per year, depending on the electricity tariff.

Example: Digital voice assistant

Owners of a 1st generation voice assistant can expect the following consumption and electricity costs:

  1. In standby mode, i.e. without a question to the assistant or music playback: 2.8 watts.
  2. In assistant mode, when a question is to be answered: 3.2 watts.
  3. In audio playback with medium volume (level 5 of 10): 3 watts.
  4. During audio playback with full volume - level 10 out of 10: 7 watts.

At an average electricity price of 29 cents per kWh, this results in annual electricity costs of 7.09 euros (24.46 kWh) in standby mode (again for a standby duration of 22h). Two hours of music a day (otherwise standby) results in 9.20 euros.

It gets significantly more expensive for 1st generation assistants with an integrated display. These devices cost between approx. 12 and approx. 19 euros per year. However, a positive trend is that newer voice assistants require less energy, especially in standby mode.

How much money can be saved if all devices are switched off completely?

The amount by which the electricity bill can be reduced if the consumer switches off all appliances and does not merely put them into standby mode depends essentially on two factors: First, it depends on how many household and electrical appliances the respective household owns. Secondly, it depends on how old the appliances are. According to information from the consumer advice centre, an average around 10 to 20 percent of electricity consumption is attributable to devices in standby mode. This percentage range has also been observed in power and energy measurements carried out by KoCoS Engineering GmbH, with up to 20 simultaneous measurements using KoCoS EPPE measuring devices, in large properties belonging to the federal states, the federal government or the real estate industry.

The insurance industry assumes an annual savings potential of 330 to 660 KWh for a three-person household. Assuming an electricity price of 29 cents per kWh (see above), this corresponds to a savings potential of approx. 95 euros to approx. 190 euros per year.


After charging the smartphone, the charger remains in the socket?

You probably know this: after charging the smartphone, the charger remains in the socket. It is convenient to be able to simply plug in the smartphone cell phone when needed and not have to search for the charging cable. What does this convenience cost us?

Modern chargers must not consume more than 0.3 W according to the Ecodesign Directive. If we again assume a duration of 22h in standby mode, a consumption of 2.4 kWh, again at an electricity price of 0.29 euros/kWh, results in a cost of 0.70 euros per year.

For each one a small amount. But if you extrapolate the additional costs to the total population, the sum is surprisingly high: because in Germany, around 60.7 million people will be using a smartphone in 2020 (source: statista).

Assuming all location devices of these smartphones remained connected to the grid in standby mode, this would result in an annual consumption of more than 145 GWh or 145 million kWh at a cost of approximately 42 million euros/a. When converted to electricity (2020 energy mix), this results in more than 58 tons of C02 emissions per year (source: UBA).

As mentioned above, a German household with three persons consumes on average about 3,300 kWh per year (as of September 2020). The energy required for standby mode could supply around 44,000 three-person households in Germany with electricity for a year. But even the chargers of laptops, tablets or e-readers consume energy when left in the socket.